Nicolaus Copernicus (1475-1543)
He was a careful mathematician and a faithful Christian and thus, could not believe that God would create a universe as ramshackle as the geocentric conception with its mathematical trickery.
He came up with the Heliocentric Conception and published a book about his findings. The famous book, “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres” provided an intellectual springboard for the criticism of the geocentric universe that inspired others to think in new directions to prove the ancient beliefs wrong.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
He is the man who discovered the telescope!
He made observations of the night skies and even provided evidence that the Geocentric Theory (by Copernicus) was correct. He made a lot of effort to provide concrete evidence for all his theories using either the telescope or math. By doing so, he disproved many widely held theories with flaws in them. He took great strides in Science and developed new theories in the area of motion, which formed the basis for Newton’s Laws. He also promoted concepts of Copernicanism by proving it through mathematical Laws and experiments.
He wanted to show that the Church and Science could coexist to study the universe better. However, the Church only saw it as a threat to them and Galileo put under house arrest. However, as people had already begun to support his theories, they began to doubt the theories by the Church.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Bacon came up with the correct Scientific method, which is still being used today. The scientific method is a procedure for scientists to follow when coming up with new scientific theories.
Before the Scientific Revolution, scientists often made up their own scientific theories, and they force-fitted evidence into these theories. The Scientific method, which included hypothesising, experimentation, observation and induction (which means that scientists should first come up with a hypothesis, conduct experiments to prove it and observe the results, and finally induce the conclusion) improved the accuracy of the theories.
Isaac newton (1642-1727)
Isaac Newton invented the 3 laws of motion (how forces work in the universe relative to one another, Law of Universal Gravitation (a system that explained the motion and placement of objects in the Copernican system), calculus and a few observations of optics (light). He used the findings of previously established scientists to develop a more synthesized view on the forces of the universe. He also used Francis Bacon’s scientific method to reach these conclusions, which explains the world around us clearly.
These individuals did their best to bring about the change of mindset in people despite much opposition and inspired future scientists to question and discover new theories. If they had not stood up for what they believed in, we might still believe that we were in the center of the universe!